Download Certified Ethical Hacker v12 Exam.312-50v12.NewDumps.2023-08-18.145q.vcex

Vendor: ECCouncil
Exam Code: 312-50v12
Exam Name: Certified Ethical Hacker v12 Exam
Date: Aug 18, 2023
File Size: 1 MB
Downloads: 6

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Demo Questions

Question 1
Juliet, a security researcher in an organization, was tasked with checking for the authenticity of images to be used in the organization's magazines. She used these images as a search query and tracked the original source and details of the images, which included photographs, profile pictures, and memes. Which of the following footprinting techniques did Rachel use to finish her task?
  1. Reverse image search
  2. Meta search engines
  3. Advanced image search
  4. Google advanced search
Correct answer: C
Question 2
Insecure direct object reference is a type of vulnerability where the application does not verify if the user is authorized to access the internal object via its name or key. Suppose a malicious user Rob tries to get access to the account of a benign user Ned. 
Which of the following requests best illustrates an attempt to exploit an insecure direct object reference vulnerability?
  1. “GET /restricted/goldtransfer?to=Rob&from=1 or 1=1’ HTTP/1.1Host: westbank.com”
  2. “GET /restricted/\r\%00account%00Ned%00access HTTP/1.1 Host: westbank.com”
  3. “GET /restricted/accounts/?name=Ned HTTP/1.1 Host westbank.com”
  4. “GET /restricted/ HTTP/1.1 Host: westbank.com
Correct answer: C
Explanation:
This question shows a classic example of an IDOR vulnerability. Rob substitutes Ned's name in the "name" parameter and if the developer has not fixed this vulnerability, then Rob will gain access to Ned's account. Below you will find more detailed information about IDOR vulnerability. Insecure direct object references (IDOR) are a cybersecurity issue that occurs when a web application developer uses an identifier for direct access to an internal implementation object but provides no additional access control and/or authorization checks. For example, an IDOR vulnerability would happen if the URL of a transaction could be changed through client-side user input to show unauthorized data of another transaction. Most web applications use simple IDs to reference objects. For example, a user in a database will usually be referred to via the user ID. The same user ID is the primary key to the database column containing user information and is generated automatically. The database key generation algorithm is very simple: it usually uses the next available integer. The same database ID generation mechanisms are used for all other types of database records. The approach described above is legitimate but not recommended because it could enable the attacker to enumerate all users. If it’s necessary to maintain this approach, the developer must at least make absolutely sure that more than just a reference is needed to access resources. For example, let’s say that the web application displays transaction details using the following URL: https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74656A malicious hacker could try to substitute the id parameter value 74656 with other similar values, for example https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74657The 74657 transaction could be a valid transaction belonging to another user. The malicious hacker should not be authorized to see it. However, if the developer made an error, the attacker would see this transaction and hence we would have an insecure direct object reference vulnerability.
This question shows a classic example of an IDOR vulnerability. Rob substitutes Ned's name in the "name" parameter and if the developer has not fixed this vulnerability, then Rob will gain access to Ned's account. Below you will find more detailed information about IDOR vulnerability. 
Insecure direct object references (IDOR) are a cybersecurity issue that occurs when a web application developer uses an identifier for direct access to an internal implementation object but provides no additional access control and/or authorization checks. For example, an IDOR vulnerability would happen if the URL of a transaction could be changed through client-side user input to show unauthorized data of another transaction. 
Most web applications use simple IDs to reference objects. For example, a user in a database will usually be referred to via the user ID. The same user ID is the primary key to the database column containing user information and is generated automatically. The database key generation algorithm is very simple: it usually uses the next available integer. The same database ID generation mechanisms are used for all other types of database records. 
The approach described above is legitimate but not recommended because it could enable the attacker to enumerate all users. If it’s necessary to maintain this approach, the developer must at least make absolutely sure that more than just a reference is needed to access resources. For example, let’s say that the web application displays transaction details using the following URL:
https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74656
A malicious hacker could try to substitute the id parameter value 74656 with other similar values, for example 
https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74657
The 74657 transaction could be a valid transaction belonging to another user. The malicious hacker should not be authorized to see it. However, if the developer made an error, the attacker would see this transaction and hence we would have an insecure direct object reference vulnerability.
Question 3
Which among the following is the best example of the third step (delivery) in the cyber kill chain?
  1. An intruder sends a malicious attachment via email to a target.
  2. An intruder creates malware to be used as a malicious attachment to an email.
  3. An intruder's malware is triggered when a target opens a malicious email attachment.
  4. An intruder's malware is installed on a target's machine.
Correct answer: A
Question 4
Which type of malware spreads from one system to another or from one network to another and causes similar types of damage as viruses do to the infected system?
  1. Rootkit
  2. Trojan
  3. Worm
  4. Adware
Correct answer: C
Question 5
Harper, a software engineer, is developing an email application. To ensure the confidentiality of email messages. Harper uses a symmetric-key block cipher having a classical 12- or 16-round Feistel network with a block size of 64 bits for encryption, which includes large 8 x 32-bit S-boxes (S1, S2, S3, S4) based on bent functions, modular addition and subtraction, key-dependent rotation, and XOR operations. This cipher also uses a masking key(Km1)and a rotation key (Kr1) for performing its functions. What is the algorithm employed by Harper to secure the email messages?
  1. CAST-128 
  2. AES
  3. GOST block cipher
  4. DES
Correct answer: A
Question 6
A post-breach forensic investigation revealed that a known vulnerability in Apache Struts was to blame for the Equifax data breach that affected 143 million customers. A fix was available from the software vendor for several months prior 10 the Intrusion. This Is likely a failure in which of the following security processes?
  1. vendor risk management
  2. Security awareness training
  3. Secure deployment lifecycle
  4. Patch management
Correct answer: D
Explanation:
Patch management is that the method that helps acquire, test and install multiple patches (code changes) on existing applications and software tools on a pc, enabling systems to remain updated on existing patches and determining that patches are the suitable ones. Managing patches so becomes simple and simple. Patch Management is usually done by software system firms as a part of their internal efforts to mend problems with the various versions of software system programs and also to assist analyze existing software system programs and discover any potential lack of security features or different upgrades. Software patches help fix those problems that exist and are detected solely once the software’s initial unharness. Patches mostly concern security while there are some patches that concern the particular practicality of programs as well.
Patch management is that the method that helps acquire, test and install multiple patches (code changes) on existing applications and software tools on a pc, enabling systems to remain updated on existing patches and determining that patches are the suitable ones. Managing patches so becomes simple and simple. 
Patch Management is usually done by software system firms as a part of their internal efforts to mend problems with the various versions of software system programs and also to assist analyze existing software system programs and discover any potential lack of security features or different upgrades. 
Software patches help fix those problems that exist and are detected solely once the software’s initial unharness. Patches mostly concern security while there are some patches that concern the particular practicality of programs as well.
Question 7
Alex, a cloud security engineer working in Eyecloud Inc. is tasked with isolating applications from the underlying infrastructure and stimulating communication via well-defined channels. For this purpose, he used an open-source technology that helped him in developing, packaging, and running applications; further, the technology provides PaaS through OS-level visualization, delivers containerized software packages, and promotes fast software delivery. What is the cloud technology employed by Alex in the above scenario?
  1. Virtual machine
  2. Serverless computing
  3. Docker
  4. Zero trust network
Correct answer: C
Question 8
Louis, a professional hacker, had used specialized tools or search engines to encrypt all his browsing activity and navigate anonymously to obtain sensitive/hidden information about official government or federal databases. After gathering the Information, he successfully performed an attack on the target government organization without being traced. Which of the following techniques is described in the above scenario?
  1. Dark web footprinting
  2. VoIP footpnnting
  3. VPN footprinting
  4. website footprinting
Correct answer: A
Explanation:
The deep web is the layer of the online cyberspace that consists of web pages and content that are hidden and unindexed.
The deep web is the layer of the online cyberspace that consists of web pages and content that are hidden and unindexed.
Question 9
Ben purchased a new smartphone and received some updates on it through the OTA method. He received two messages: one with a PIN from the network operator and another asking him to enter the PIN received from the operator. As soon as he entered the PIN, the smartphone started functioning in an abnormal manner. What is the type of attack performed on Ben in the above scenario?
  1. Advanced SMS phishing
  2. Bypass SSL pinning
  3. Phishing
  4. Tap 'n ghost attack
Correct answer: A
Question 10
A company’s Web development team has become aware of a certain type of security vulnerability in their Web software. To mitigate the possibility of this vulnerability being exploited, the team wants to modify the software requirements to disallow users from entering HTML as input into their Web application. 
What kind of Web application vulnerability likely exists in their software?
  1. Cross-site scripting vulnerability
  2. SQL injection vulnerability 
  3. Web site defacement vulnerability
  4. Gross-site Request Forgery vulnerability
Correct answer: A
Explanation:
There is no single, standardized classification of cross-site scripting flaws, but most experts distinguish between at least two primary flavors of XSS flaws: non-persistent and persistent. In this issue, we consider the non-persistent cross-site scripting vulnerability. The non-persistent (or reflected) cross-site scripting vulnerability is by far the most basic type of web vulnerability. These holes show up when the data provided by a web client, most commonly in HTTP query parameters (e.g. HTML form submission), is used immediately by server-side scripts to parse and display a page of results for and to that user, without properly sanitizing the content. Because HTML documents have a flat, serial structure that mixes control statements, formatting, and the actual content, any non-validated user-supplied data included in the resulting page without proper HTML encoding, may lead to markup injection. A classic example of a potential vector is a site search engine: if one searches for a string, the search string will typically be redisplayed verbatim on the result page to indicate what was searched for. If this response does not properly escape or reject HTML control characters, a cross-site scripting flaw will ensue.
There is no single, standardized classification of cross-site scripting flaws, but most experts distinguish between at least two primary flavors of XSS flaws: non-persistent and persistent. In this issue, we consider the non-persistent cross-site scripting vulnerability. 
The non-persistent (or reflected) cross-site scripting vulnerability is by far the most basic type of web vulnerability. These holes show up when the data provided by a web client, most commonly in HTTP query parameters (e.g. HTML form submission), is used immediately by server-side scripts to parse and display a page of results for and to that user, without properly sanitizing the content. 
Because HTML documents have a flat, serial structure that mixes control statements, formatting, and the actual content, any non-validated user-supplied data included in the resulting page without proper HTML encoding, may lead to markup injection. A classic example of a potential vector is a site search engine: if one searches for a string, the search string will typically be redisplayed verbatim on the result page to indicate what was searched for. If this response does not properly escape or reject HTML control characters, a cross-site scripting flaw will ensue.
Question 11
Juliet, a security researcher in an organization, was tasked with checking for the authenticity of images to be used in the organization's magazines. She used these images as a search query and tracked the original source and details of the images, which included photographs, profile pictures, and memes. Which of the following footprinting techniques did Rachel use to finish her task?
  1. Reverse image search
  2. Meta search engines
  3. Advanced image search
  4. Google advanced search
Correct answer: C
Question 12
Insecure direct object reference is a type of vulnerability where the application does not verify if the user is authorized to access the internal object via its name or key. Suppose a malicious user Rob tries to get access to the account of a benign user Ned. 
Which of the following requests best illustrates an attempt to exploit an insecure direct object reference vulnerability?
  1. “GET /restricted/goldtransfer?to=Rob&from=1 or 1=1’ HTTP/1.1Host: westbank.com”
  2. “GET /restricted/\r\%00account%00Ned%00access HTTP/1.1 Host: westbank.com”
  3. “GET /restricted/accounts/?name=Ned HTTP/1.1 Host westbank.com”
  4. “GET /restricted/ HTTP/1.1 Host: westbank.com
Correct answer: C
Explanation:
This question shows a classic example of an IDOR vulnerability. Rob substitutes Ned's name in the "name" parameter and if the developer has not fixed this vulnerability, then Rob will gain access to Ned's account. Below you will find more detailed information about IDOR vulnerability. Insecure direct object references (IDOR) are a cybersecurity issue that occurs when a web application developer uses an identifier for direct access to an internal implementation object but provides no additional access control and/or authorization checks. For example, an IDOR vulnerability would happen if the URL of a transaction could be changed through client-side user input to show unauthorized data of another transaction. Most web applications use simple IDs to reference objects. For example, a user in a database will usually be referred to via the user ID. The same user ID is the primary key to the database column containing user information and is generated automatically. The database key generation algorithm is very simple: it usually uses the next available integer. The same database ID generation mechanisms are used for all other types of database records. The approach described above is legitimate but not recommended because it could enable the attacker to enumerate all users. If it’s necessary to maintain this approach, the developer must at least make absolutely sure that more than just a reference is needed to access resources. For example, let’s say that the web application displays transaction details using the following URL: https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74656A malicious hacker could try to substitute the id parameter value 74656 with other similar values, for example https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74657The 74657 transaction could be a valid transaction belonging to another user. The malicious hacker should not be authorized to see it. However, if the developer made an error, the attacker would see this transaction and hence we would have an insecure direct object reference vulnerability.
This question shows a classic example of an IDOR vulnerability. Rob substitutes Ned's name in the "name" parameter and if the developer has not fixed this vulnerability, then Rob will gain access to Ned's account. Below you will find more detailed information about IDOR vulnerability. 
Insecure direct object references (IDOR) are a cybersecurity issue that occurs when a web application developer uses an identifier for direct access to an internal implementation object but provides no additional access control and/or authorization checks. For example, an IDOR vulnerability would happen if the URL of a transaction could be changed through client-side user input to show unauthorized data of another transaction. 
Most web applications use simple IDs to reference objects. For example, a user in a database will usually be referred to via the user ID. The same user ID is the primary key to the database column containing user information and is generated automatically. The database key generation algorithm is very simple: it usually uses the next available integer. The same database ID generation mechanisms are used for all other types of database records. 
The approach described above is legitimate but not recommended because it could enable the attacker to enumerate all users. If it’s necessary to maintain this approach, the developer must at least make absolutely sure that more than just a reference is needed to access resources. For example, let’s say that the web application displays transaction details using the following URL:
https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74656
A malicious hacker could try to substitute the id parameter value 74656 with other similar values, for example 
https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74657
The 74657 transaction could be a valid transaction belonging to another user. The malicious hacker should not be authorized to see it. However, if the developer made an error, the attacker would see this transaction and hence we would have an insecure direct object reference vulnerability.
Question 13
Which among the following is the best example of the third step (delivery) in the cyber kill chain?
  1. An intruder sends a malicious attachment via email to a target.
  2. An intruder creates malware to be used as a malicious attachment to an email.
  3. An intruder's malware is triggered when a target opens a malicious email attachment.
  4. An intruder's malware is installed on a target's machine.
Correct answer: A
Question 14
Which type of malware spreads from one system to another or from one network to another and causes similar types of damage as viruses do to the infected system?
  1. Rootkit
  2. Trojan
  3. Worm
  4. Adware
Correct answer: C
Question 15
Harper, a software engineer, is developing an email application. To ensure the confidentiality of email messages. Harper uses a symmetric-key block cipher having a classical 12- or 16-round Feistel network with a block size of 64 bits for encryption, which includes large 8 x 32-bit S-boxes (S1, S2, S3, S4) based on bent functions, modular addition and subtraction, key-dependent rotation, and XOR operations. This cipher also uses a masking key(Km1)and a rotation key (Kr1) for performing its functions. What is the algorithm employed by Harper to secure the email messages?
  1. CAST-128 
  2. AES
  3. GOST block cipher
  4. DES
Correct answer: A
Question 16
A post-breach forensic investigation revealed that a known vulnerability in Apache Struts was to blame for the Equifax data breach that affected 143 million customers. A fix was available from the software vendor for several months prior 10 the Intrusion. This Is likely a failure in which of the following security processes?
  1. vendor risk management
  2. Security awareness training
  3. Secure deployment lifecycle
  4. Patch management
Correct answer: D
Explanation:
Patch management is that the method that helps acquire, test and install multiple patches (code changes) on existing applications and software tools on a pc, enabling systems to remain updated on existing patches and determining that patches are the suitable ones. Managing patches so becomes simple and simple. Patch Management is usually done by software system firms as a part of their internal efforts to mend problems with the various versions of software system programs and also to assist analyze existing software system programs and discover any potential lack of security features or different upgrades. Software patches help fix those problems that exist and are detected solely once the software’s initial unharness. Patches mostly concern security while there are some patches that concern the particular practicality of programs as well.
Patch management is that the method that helps acquire, test and install multiple patches (code changes) on existing applications and software tools on a pc, enabling systems to remain updated on existing patches and determining that patches are the suitable ones. Managing patches so becomes simple and simple. 
Patch Management is usually done by software system firms as a part of their internal efforts to mend problems with the various versions of software system programs and also to assist analyze existing software system programs and discover any potential lack of security features or different upgrades. 
Software patches help fix those problems that exist and are detected solely once the software’s initial unharness. Patches mostly concern security while there are some patches that concern the particular practicality of programs as well.
Question 17
Alex, a cloud security engineer working in Eyecloud Inc. is tasked with isolating applications from the underlying infrastructure and stimulating communication via well-defined channels. For this purpose, he used an open-source technology that helped him in developing, packaging, and running applications; further, the technology provides PaaS through OS-level visualization, delivers containerized software packages, and promotes fast software delivery. What is the cloud technology employed by Alex in the above scenario?
  1. Virtual machine
  2. Serverless computing
  3. Docker
  4. Zero trust network
Correct answer: C
Question 18
Louis, a professional hacker, had used specialized tools or search engines to encrypt all his browsing activity and navigate anonymously to obtain sensitive/hidden information about official government or federal databases. After gathering the Information, he successfully performed an attack on the target government organization without being traced. Which of the following techniques is described in the above scenario?
  1. Dark web footprinting
  2. VoIP footpnnting
  3. VPN footprinting
  4. website footprinting
Correct answer: A
Explanation:
The deep web is the layer of the online cyberspace that consists of web pages and content that are hidden and unindexed.
The deep web is the layer of the online cyberspace that consists of web pages and content that are hidden and unindexed.
Question 19
Ben purchased a new smartphone and received some updates on it through the OTA method. He received two messages: one with a PIN from the network operator and another asking him to enter the PIN received from the operator. As soon as he entered the PIN, the smartphone started functioning in an abnormal manner. What is the type of attack performed on Ben in the above scenario?
  1. Advanced SMS phishing
  2. Bypass SSL pinning
  3. Phishing
  4. Tap 'n ghost attack
Correct answer: A
Question 20
A company’s Web development team has become aware of a certain type of security vulnerability in their Web software. To mitigate the possibility of this vulnerability being exploited, the team wants to modify the software requirements to disallow users from entering HTML as input into their Web application. 
What kind of Web application vulnerability likely exists in their software?
  1. Cross-site scripting vulnerability
  2. SQL injection vulnerability 
  3. Web site defacement vulnerability
  4. Gross-site Request Forgery vulnerability
Correct answer: A
Explanation:
There is no single, standardized classification of cross-site scripting flaws, but most experts distinguish between at least two primary flavors of XSS flaws: non-persistent and persistent. In this issue, we consider the non-persistent cross-site scripting vulnerability. The non-persistent (or reflected) cross-site scripting vulnerability is by far the most basic type of web vulnerability. These holes show up when the data provided by a web client, most commonly in HTTP query parameters (e.g. HTML form submission), is used immediately by server-side scripts to parse and display a page of results for and to that user, without properly sanitizing the content. Because HTML documents have a flat, serial structure that mixes control statements, formatting, and the actual content, any non-validated user-supplied data included in the resulting page without proper HTML encoding, may lead to markup injection. A classic example of a potential vector is a site search engine: if one searches for a string, the search string will typically be redisplayed verbatim on the result page to indicate what was searched for. If this response does not properly escape or reject HTML control characters, a cross-site scripting flaw will ensue.
There is no single, standardized classification of cross-site scripting flaws, but most experts distinguish between at least two primary flavors of XSS flaws: non-persistent and persistent. In this issue, we consider the non-persistent cross-site scripting vulnerability. 
The non-persistent (or reflected) cross-site scripting vulnerability is by far the most basic type of web vulnerability. These holes show up when the data provided by a web client, most commonly in HTTP query parameters (e.g. HTML form submission), is used immediately by server-side scripts to parse and display a page of results for and to that user, without properly sanitizing the content. 
Because HTML documents have a flat, serial structure that mixes control statements, formatting, and the actual content, any non-validated user-supplied data included in the resulting page without proper HTML encoding, may lead to markup injection. A classic example of a potential vector is a site search engine: if one searches for a string, the search string will typically be redisplayed verbatim on the result page to indicate what was searched for. If this response does not properly escape or reject HTML control characters, a cross-site scripting flaw will ensue.
Question 21
Juliet, a security researcher in an organization, was tasked with checking for the authenticity of images to be used in the organization's magazines. She used these images as a search query and tracked the original source and details of the images, which included photographs, profile pictures, and memes. Which of the following footprinting techniques did Rachel use to finish her task?
  1. Reverse image search
  2. Meta search engines
  3. Advanced image search
  4. Google advanced search
Correct answer: C
Question 22
Insecure direct object reference is a type of vulnerability where the application does not verify if the user is authorized to access the internal object via its name or key. Suppose a malicious user Rob tries to get access to the account of a benign user Ned. 
Which of the following requests best illustrates an attempt to exploit an insecure direct object reference vulnerability?
  1. “GET /restricted/goldtransfer?to=Rob&from=1 or 1=1’ HTTP/1.1Host: westbank.com”
  2. “GET /restricted/\r\%00account%00Ned%00access HTTP/1.1 Host: westbank.com”
  3. “GET /restricted/accounts/?name=Ned HTTP/1.1 Host westbank.com”
  4. “GET /restricted/ HTTP/1.1 Host: westbank.com
Correct answer: C
Explanation:
This question shows a classic example of an IDOR vulnerability. Rob substitutes Ned's name in the "name" parameter and if the developer has not fixed this vulnerability, then Rob will gain access to Ned's account. Below you will find more detailed information about IDOR vulnerability. Insecure direct object references (IDOR) are a cybersecurity issue that occurs when a web application developer uses an identifier for direct access to an internal implementation object but provides no additional access control and/or authorization checks. For example, an IDOR vulnerability would happen if the URL of a transaction could be changed through client-side user input to show unauthorized data of another transaction. Most web applications use simple IDs to reference objects. For example, a user in a database will usually be referred to via the user ID. The same user ID is the primary key to the database column containing user information and is generated automatically. The database key generation algorithm is very simple: it usually uses the next available integer. The same database ID generation mechanisms are used for all other types of database records. The approach described above is legitimate but not recommended because it could enable the attacker to enumerate all users. If it’s necessary to maintain this approach, the developer must at least make absolutely sure that more than just a reference is needed to access resources. For example, let’s say that the web application displays transaction details using the following URL: https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74656A malicious hacker could try to substitute the id parameter value 74656 with other similar values, for example https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74657The 74657 transaction could be a valid transaction belonging to another user. The malicious hacker should not be authorized to see it. However, if the developer made an error, the attacker would see this transaction and hence we would have an insecure direct object reference vulnerability.
This question shows a classic example of an IDOR vulnerability. Rob substitutes Ned's name in the "name" parameter and if the developer has not fixed this vulnerability, then Rob will gain access to Ned's account. Below you will find more detailed information about IDOR vulnerability. 
Insecure direct object references (IDOR) are a cybersecurity issue that occurs when a web application developer uses an identifier for direct access to an internal implementation object but provides no additional access control and/or authorization checks. For example, an IDOR vulnerability would happen if the URL of a transaction could be changed through client-side user input to show unauthorized data of another transaction. 
Most web applications use simple IDs to reference objects. For example, a user in a database will usually be referred to via the user ID. The same user ID is the primary key to the database column containing user information and is generated automatically. The database key generation algorithm is very simple: it usually uses the next available integer. The same database ID generation mechanisms are used for all other types of database records. 
The approach described above is legitimate but not recommended because it could enable the attacker to enumerate all users. If it’s necessary to maintain this approach, the developer must at least make absolutely sure that more than just a reference is needed to access resources. For example, let’s say that the web application displays transaction details using the following URL:
https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74656
A malicious hacker could try to substitute the id parameter value 74656 with other similar values, for example 
https://www.example.com/transaction.php?id=74657
The 74657 transaction could be a valid transaction belonging to another user. The malicious hacker should not be authorized to see it. However, if the developer made an error, the attacker would see this transaction and hence we would have an insecure direct object reference vulnerability.
Question 23
Which among the following is the best example of the third step (delivery) in the cyber kill chain?
  1. An intruder sends a malicious attachment via email to a target.
  2. An intruder creates malware to be used as a malicious attachment to an email.
  3. An intruder's malware is triggered when a target opens a malicious email attachment.
  4. An intruder's malware is installed on a target's machine.
Correct answer: A
Question 24
Which type of malware spreads from one system to another or from one network to another and causes similar types of damage as viruses do to the infected system?
  1. Rootkit
  2. Trojan
  3. Worm
  4. Adware
Correct answer: C
Question 25
Harper, a software engineer, is developing an email application. To ensure the confidentiality of email messages. Harper uses a symmetric-key block cipher having a classical 12- or 16-round Feistel network with a block size of 64 bits for encryption, which includes large 8 x 32-bit S-boxes (S1, S2, S3, S4) based on bent functions, modular addition and subtraction, key-dependent rotation, and XOR operations. This cipher also uses a masking key(Km1)and a rotation key (Kr1) for performing its functions. What is the algorithm employed by Harper to secure the email messages?
  1. CAST-128 
  2. AES
  3. GOST block cipher
  4. DES
Correct answer: A
Question 26
A post-breach forensic investigation revealed that a known vulnerability in Apache Struts was to blame for the Equifax data breach that affected 143 million customers. A fix was available from the software vendor for several months prior 10 the Intrusion. This Is likely a failure in which of the following security processes?
  1. vendor risk management
  2. Security awareness training
  3. Secure deployment lifecycle
  4. Patch management
Correct answer: D
Explanation:
Patch management is that the method that helps acquire, test and install multiple patches (code changes) on existing applications and software tools on a pc, enabling systems to remain updated on existing patches and determining that patches are the suitable ones. Managing patches so becomes simple and simple. Patch Management is usually done by software system firms as a part of their internal efforts to mend problems with the various versions of software system programs and also to assist analyze existing software system programs and discover any potential lack of security features or different upgrades. Software patches help fix those problems that exist and are detected solely once the software’s initial unharness. Patches mostly concern security while there are some patches that concern the particular practicality of programs as well.
Patch management is that the method that helps acquire, test and install multiple patches (code changes) on existing applications and software tools on a pc, enabling systems to remain updated on existing patches and determining that patches are the suitable ones. Managing patches so becomes simple and simple. 
Patch Management is usually done by software system firms as a part of their internal efforts to mend problems with the various versions of software system programs and also to assist analyze existing software system programs and discover any potential lack of security features or different upgrades. 
Software patches help fix those problems that exist and are detected solely once the software’s initial unharness. Patches mostly concern security while there are some patches that concern the particular practicality of programs as well.
Question 27
Alex, a cloud security engineer working in Eyecloud Inc. is tasked with isolating applications from the underlying infrastructure and stimulating communication via well-defined channels. For this purpose, he used an open-source technology that helped him in developing, packaging, and running applications; further, the technology provides PaaS through OS-level visualization, delivers containerized software packages, and promotes fast software delivery. What is the cloud technology employed by Alex in the above scenario?
  1. Virtual machine
  2. Serverless computing
  3. Docker
  4. Zero trust network
Correct answer: C
Question 28
Louis, a professional hacker, had used specialized tools or search engines to encrypt all his browsing activity and navigate anonymously to obtain sensitive/hidden information about official government or federal databases. After gathering the Information, he successfully performed an attack on the target government organization without being traced. Which of the following techniques is described in the above scenario?
  1. Dark web footprinting
  2. VoIP footpnnting
  3. VPN footprinting
  4. website footprinting
Correct answer: A
Explanation:
The deep web is the layer of the online cyberspace that consists of web pages and content that are hidden and unindexed.
The deep web is the layer of the online cyberspace that consists of web pages and content that are hidden and unindexed.
Question 29
Ben purchased a new smartphone and received some updates on it through the OTA method. He received two messages: one with a PIN from the network operator and another asking him to enter the PIN received from the operator. As soon as he entered the PIN, the smartphone started functioning in an abnormal manner. What is the type of attack performed on Ben in the above scenario?
  1. Advanced SMS phishing
  2. Bypass SSL pinning
  3. Phishing
  4. Tap 'n ghost attack
Correct answer: A
Question 30
A company’s Web development team has become aware of a certain type of security vulnerability in their Web software. To mitigate the possibility of this vulnerability being exploited, the team wants to modify the software requirements to disallow users from entering HTML as input into their Web application. 
What kind of Web application vulnerability likely exists in their software?
  1. Cross-site scripting vulnerability
  2. SQL injection vulnerability 
  3. Web site defacement vulnerability
  4. Gross-site Request Forgery vulnerability
Correct answer: A
Explanation:
There is no single, standardized classification of cross-site scripting flaws, but most experts distinguish between at least two primary flavors of XSS flaws: non-persistent and persistent. In this issue, we consider the non-persistent cross-site scripting vulnerability. The non-persistent (or reflected) cross-site scripting vulnerability is by far the most basic type of web vulnerability. These holes show up when the data provided by a web client, most commonly in HTTP query parameters (e.g. HTML form submission), is used immediately by server-side scripts to parse and display a page of results for and to that user, without properly sanitizing the content. Because HTML documents have a flat, serial structure that mixes control statements, formatting, and the actual content, any non-validated user-supplied data included in the resulting page without proper HTML encoding, may lead to markup injection. A classic example of a potential vector is a site search engine: if one searches for a string, the search string will typically be redisplayed verbatim on the result page to indicate what was searched for. If this response does not properly escape or reject HTML control characters, a cross-site scripting flaw will ensue.
There is no single, standardized classification of cross-site scripting flaws, but most experts distinguish between at least two primary flavors of XSS flaws: non-persistent and persistent. In this issue, we consider the non-persistent cross-site scripting vulnerability. 
The non-persistent (or reflected) cross-site scripting vulnerability is by far the most basic type of web vulnerability. These holes show up when the data provided by a web client, most commonly in HTTP query parameters (e.g. HTML form submission), is used immediately by server-side scripts to parse and display a page of results for and to that user, without properly sanitizing the content. 
Because HTML documents have a flat, serial structure that mixes control statements, formatting, and the actual content, any non-validated user-supplied data included in the resulting page without proper HTML encoding, may lead to markup injection. A classic example of a potential vector is a site search engine: if one searches for a string, the search string will typically be redisplayed verbatim on the result page to indicate what was searched for. If this response does not properly escape or reject HTML control characters, a cross-site scripting flaw will ensue.
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